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习近平和莫迪把中印关系带入新时代

时间:2019-10-14 18:03:56   作者:龙兴春   来源:亚太通讯社   阅读:6008   评论:0
内容摘要:Asia Pacific News Agency(Author/Long Xingchun,the director of the Center of Indian Research, China West Normal University)The President of t......
习近平和莫迪把中印关系带入新时代
Asia Pacific News Agency (Author/ Long Xingchun,the director of the Center of Indian Research, China West Normal University) The President of the People’s Republic of China, Xi Jinping, and the Prime Minister of India, Shri Narendra Modi, held their Second Informal Summit in Chennai, India, on 11–12 October 2019, indicating that the strategic communication between the leaders of China and India has become institutionalized after their first informal meeting in April 2018.
 
In recent years, outstanding issues such as the border question have not been resolved, and some new issues have come under the spotlight. For example, India attributed its failure to join the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) to China, and it deemed that China’s increasing presence in South Asia and the Indian Ocean poses challenges to India. The Dong Lang confrontation during the summer of 2017 pushed Sino-Indian tensions to the brink of war. Although that standoff was finally resolved peacefully, it caused the leaders of the two countries to recognize that they must give prominence to Sino-Indian strategic communication, enhance strategic mutual trust, productively manage their differences and prevent disputes from escalating into conflicts. The first summit last year adequately enhanced the strategic communication between China and India, mended the damage to relations caused by the Dong Lang event and put China-India relations back on a normal track.
 
In May, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) won India’s elections, and Modi was re-elected as Prime Minister of India. Immediately afterwards, the Indian media began to report that the Second Informal Summit between Chinese and Indian leaders might be held in India in October. All of a sudden, however, by revoking Article 370 granting special status to India-administered Kashmir and placing Ladakh under the direct jurisdiction of the union on Aug 5, New Delhi opened a Pandora’s Box triggering a new round of tension between India and Pakistan. India’s definition of “Kashmir” involves Chinese territory, and moreover India believes that China has been biased in favor of Pakistan in the Kashmir dispute between India and Pakistan, causing twists and turns in Sino-Indian relations. In September, the Indian military undertook another large-scale drill east of the disputed border between China and India. Although it claimed that it was a routine drill, its intentions against China could not be more obvious. In early October the Indian government conducted another announcement restricting exchange between Indian universities and their Chinese counterparts. These moves struck a jarring note in the friendly atmosphere between China and India for the upcoming summit, and thus the Indian public began to worry about whether the second leaders’ summit would be cancelled. In the end the summit was held smoothly thanks to the two countries leaders’ far-sighted leadership and their steering clear of interference, with a focus instead on holistic, long-term and strategic issues between the two countries.
 
According to diplomatic practice, informal meetings, unlike official visits, simplify or even cancel ceremonial activities. Nevertheless, India made thoughtful preparations. President Xi was warmly welcomed by tens of thousands of people lining the streets after he arrived in Chennai. The air of warmth and friendliness somewhat resembled the honeymoon period of Sino-Indian relations back in the 1950s.
  
As there is a large area of disputed territory to be tackled by the two rising powers, China and India are bound to fall into confrontation and conflict according to the western theory of international relations. American scholars predicted many years ago that “there would surely be a war between China and India.” In his meeting with Modi, Xi Jinping proposed that “China and India should correctly view each other’s development and enhance strategic mutual trust. No matter from which perspective, the two countries should be good neighbors living in harmony and good partners moving forward hand in hand. ‘The Dragon and Elephant Dance’ is the only correct choice for China and India and is in the fundamental interests of the two countries and their peoples. The two neighboring countries should and can take a path of friendly cooperation.” As both Xi Jinping and Modi highlighted, the two countries are endowed with ancient civilizations that have their respective unique culture and wisdom. It is believed that the two will definitely avert the doom of “Inevitable Conflicts between Great Powers” espoused by the West, achieve the long-term peaceful development of Sino-Indian relations and develop a way of coexistence between countries far removed from that of the West.
  
Differences and disputes do not hinder cooperation among countries. Xi Jinping pointed out that “China and India should emphasize friendship and cooperation, resolve suspicion and misgivings, and properly handle differences and sensitive issues. As for issues that cannot be promptly solved, they should be properly managed.” Inter-state relations are as complex as interpersonal ones. The key is in how countries face and deal with them, as differences and disputes are unavoidable. Negative thinking holds that cooperation cannot be achieved without resolving disputes, while positive thinking expresses faith that cooperation can still be achieved between countries despite disputes. Objectively speaking, the potential for cooperation extends far beyond the disputes between China and India. On the one hand, China and India need to work hard to address their issues and contain the problems that are difficult to tackle in the short term, so as not to let them hinder cooperation. On the other, promoting common interests and strategic mutual trust through cooperation is more conducive to coping with the outstanding issues.
  
Xi Jinping reiterated that “China and India should intensify cooperation in international and regional affairs, unequivocally stand for the international system with the United Nations at its core, as well as the international order based on international laws, firmly support multilateralism and the multilateral trading system with the World Trade Organization at its core, and safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of developing countries for development.” Prime Minister Modi also stated that “world peace and human progress cannot be achieved without India-China cooperation in the 21st century.” In the wake of the 2008 international financial crisis, China and India have become major economies with the world’s fastest growth as well as the two largest contributors to world economic growth. Therefore, not only is Sino-Indian cooperation constructive to both sides, but it is also of great significance to the region and the world as a whole. Especially against the backdrop of anti-globalization in developed western countries, the meddling of the United States with the international multilateral mechanism, and the world’s fall into a period of uncertainty, Sino-Indian cooperation will allow the world to rest assured more than ever before.
    
In addition to global, long term and strategic issues, Xi Jinping and Modi did not overlook specific bilateral issues. China has proactively increased imports of Indian rice and sugar and has welcomed Indian pharmaceutical and information technology enterprises to invest and cooperate in China. Evidently, China has taken a positive attitude towards addressing India’s concerns about their trade deficit. India gave welcoming signals to encourage more Chinese enterprises to invest in manufacturing and other industries in India, which plays an important role in promoting “Made in India” as initiated by Prime Minister Modi. India has decided to issue five-year multi-entry tourist visas to Chinese citizens from October, which will surely attract a large number of Chinese tourists to India and greatly promote the development of Indian tourism and people-to-people exchange in between. The two countries also decided to jointly organize 70 events to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations next year. Moreover with President Xi Jinping’s invitation to Prime Minister Modi to pay a state visit to China, it is expected that, as long as differences are well managed, China-India relations and the friendly atmosphere between the two will reach new heights in 2020, laying a good foundation for the two countries to usher in a new era of long-term friendship.
习近平和莫迪把中印关系带入新时代
   据亚太通讯社报道(撰稿/西华师大印度研究中心主任龙兴春  翻译/晓愁) 10月11-12日,中国国家主席习近平与印度总理莫迪在金奈举行第二次领导人非正式会晤。表明2018年4月第一次非正式会晤后,中印领导人的战略沟通已经实现机制化。
    这些年,中印间边界问题等原有的矛盾没有得到解决,又产生了一些新的矛盾,如印度申请加入NSG不成怪罪中国,认为中国在南亚及印度洋地区的存在增加对印度形成挑战。2017年夏天发生的洞朗对峙把中印矛盾推到战争的边缘,虽然对峙最后得到和平解决,但这让两国领导人意识到必须高度重视中印战略沟通,增进战略互信,有效管控分歧,防止矛盾升级为冲突。去年的第一次领导人非正式会晤有力地加强了中印战略沟通,修复了因洞朗对峙受伤的中印关系,把两国关系重新拉回到正常轨道上。
     今天5月,印度人民党(BJP)赢利印度大选,莫迪连任印度总理。随即,印度媒体就开始报道,中印领导人第二次非正式会晤可能10月份在印度举行。然而,8月5日,印度政府突然宣布取消宪法370条赋予印克什米尔的自治地位,并把拉达克从印控克什米尔地区划出来单列为联邦直辖区,引发新一轮印巴关系紧张。由于印方所定义的“克什米尔”涉及到中方领土,加同印度认为中国在印巴克什米尔争端上偏向巴基斯坦,使中印关系出现波折。9月,印度军方又在中印边界争议的东段举行大规模军事演习,虽然声称例行演习,但针对中国的意图明显。10月初,印度政府部门又出台限制印度高校与中国高校交流的通知。这些动作与中印友好和两国领导人即将会晤的大气氛格格不入,以至印方舆论都开始担心第二次领导人非正式会晤会不会取消。最后看来,两国领导人高瞻远瞩,从中印关系的大局出发,着眼两国关系的全局性、长期性和战略性问题,排除干扰,使第二次领导人非正式会晤顺利举行。
     从外交惯例来讲,非正式会晤相对正式访问会简化乃至取消仪式性和礼仪性活动,但印方还是做了精心安排,习近平主席到达金奈后受到上印度万民众夹道欢迎,热情友好气氛仿佛回到了上世纪50年代中印关系蜜月期。
     作为两国崛起中的大国,双方又存在大面积的领土争端,按照西方国际关系理论,中印必然陷入对抗和冲突,多年前曾经美国学者预测“中印必有一战”。在与莫迪的会晤中,习近平提出“中印要正确看待对方发展,增进战略互信。无论从哪个角度看,中印都应该是和谐相处的好邻居、携手前行的好伙伴。实现“龙象共舞”是中印唯一正确选择,符合两国和两国人民根本利益。两国应该也完全可以走出一条两个相邻大国友好合作的康庄大道。”正如习近平和莫迪都强调,中国和印度都是文明古国,有着自己独特的文化和智慧,相信中国和印度一定能走出西方“大国间必然冲突”的陷阱,实现中印关系的长期和平发展,走出不同于西方的国家间相处道路。
     分歧和矛盾并不妨碍国家间合作。习近平指出“中印要聚焦友好和合作,化解猜忌和疑虑,妥善处理分歧和敏感问题。对一时解决不了的问题,要妥善加以管控”。国家间关系和人际关系一样都是非常复杂的,分歧和矛盾总是难免,关键是怎样面对和处理。消极的思维认为,矛盾不解决就无法进行合作,而积极思维认为矛盾存在的情况下,国家间依然可以合作。客观地看,中印间虽然有一些矛盾,但是合作潜力更大。中印一方面需要努力解决矛盾,但对于短期内实在难以解决的矛盾要尽量加以管控,不让矛盾阻碍合作;相反,通过合作增进共同利益和战略互信更有助于解决原有矛盾。
     习近平强调“中印加强在国际和地区事务中的合作。旗帜鲜明地维护以联合国为核心的国际体系和以国际法为基础的国际秩序,坚定维护多边主义和以世界贸易组织为核心的多边贸易体制,保障发展中国家的正当发展权益。”莫迪总理也指出“进入21世纪,世界和平和人类进步离不开印中合作。”2008年国际金融危机后,中国和印度成是世界是经济增长最快的主要经济体,也是对世界经济增长贡献最大的两个经济体。因此,中印合作不仅有利于双方,对地区和全球都有重要意义。特别是在西方发达国家出现逆全球化,美国破坏国际多边机制,让世界进入一个不确定性的时期,中印合作将为世界增加更多确定性。
     在聚集全局性、长期性和战略性问题外,习近平和莫迪并没有忽视两国关系当前的一些具体问题。中方积极增加进口印度大米和食糖等产品,欢迎印度药品企业和信息技术企业赴华投资合作,显然中国对解决印度关切的贸易逆差问题持积极姿态。印方欢迎更多中国企业来印投资制造业等产业,对推动莫迪总理提出的“印度制造”有重要作用。印度决定从10月份开始向中国公民发放5年多次入境的旅游签证,这必将吸引大量中国游客到印度旅游,极大地促进印度旅游业发展和中印人员往来。双方还决定明年共同办好庆祝建交70周年70场系列活动,加上习近平主席邀请莫迪总理再次赴华举行会晤,相信只要管控好分歧,中印关系及两国友好合作气氛在2020年将达到新的高度,为两国关系进入长期友好的新时代埋下里程碑。
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